Surya Namaskar: Steps and Benefits

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Surya Namaskar steps

Surya Namaskar, or Sun Salutation, is one of the most well-known and widely practiced sequences in yoga. It is a series of twelve interconnected poses that flow smoothly from one to the next, creating a comprehensive workout for the body and mind. The practice of Surya Namaskar can provide numerous physical and mental health benefits, making it an excellent addition to any fitness routine. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the steps of Surya Namaskar in detail and delve into the myriad benefits it offers.

The Steps of Surya Namaskar

Surya Namaskar is typically performed in a sequence of twelve poses, each designed to stretch, strengthen, and balance different parts of the body. Here are the steps:

  1. Pranamasana (Prayer Pose)
    • How to Do: Stand at the front of your mat with feet together and weight evenly distributed. Bring your palms together in front of your chest in a prayer position.
    • Breath: Inhale deeply.
  2. Hasta Uttanasana (Raised Arms Pose)
    • How to Do: Inhale, lift your arms up and back, keeping your biceps close to your ears. Stretch your whole body upward.
    • Breath: Inhale, arch back slightly.
  3. Uttanasana (Standing Forward Bend)
    • How to Do: Exhale, bend forward from your hips and bring your hands down to the floor beside your feet. Try to touch your forehead to your knees.
    • Breath: Exhale, bend forward.
  4. Ashwa Sanchalanasana (Equestrian Pose)
    • How to Do: Inhale, stretch your right leg back as far as possible and lower your right knee to the floor. Keep your left foot between your hands and look up.
    • Breath: Inhale, stretch leg back.
  5. Dandasana (Stick Pose)
    • How to Do: Exhale, take your left foot back, and bring your body into a straight line, like a plank position.
    • Breath: Exhale, hold the plank.
  6. Ashtanga Namaskara (Salute with Eight Parts)
    • How to Do: Exhale, lower your knees, chest, and chin to the floor. Your hips should be slightly raised.
    • Breath: Exhale, lower down.
  7. Bhujangasana (Cobra Pose)
    • How to Do: Inhale, slide forward and raise your chest up into a cobra position. Keep your elbows bent and close to your body.
    • Breath: Inhale, arch back.
  8. Adho Mukha Svanasana (Downward Facing Dog Pose)
    • How to Do: Exhale, lift your hips and straighten your arms and legs to form an inverted “V” shape. Try to keep your heels on the ground.
    • Breath: Exhale, lift hips.
  9. Ashwa Sanchalanasana (Equestrian Pose)
    • How to Do: Inhale, bring your right foot forward between your hands. Lower your left knee to the floor and look up.
    • Breath: Inhale, step forward.
  10. Uttanasana (Standing Forward Bend)
    • How to Do: Exhale, bring your left foot forward, and bend forward from your hips, placing your hands beside your feet.
    • Breath: Exhale, bend forward.
  11. Hasta Uttanasana (Raised Arms Pose)
    • How to Do: Inhale, lift your arms up and back, stretching your whole body upward.
    • Breath: Inhale, stretch up.
  12. Pranamasana (Prayer Pose)
    • How to Do: Exhale, bring your palms together in front of your chest.
    • Breath: Exhale, return to starting position.

This completes one cycle of Surya Namaskar. Typically, multiple cycles are performed in a session, often starting with a lower number and gradually increasing as strength and flexibility improve.

Benefits of Surya Namaskar

Surya Namaskar offers a wide range of benefits that cater to the physical, mental, and emotional aspects of health. Here are some of the key benefits:

  1. Full Body Workout
    Surya Namaskar is a comprehensive exercise that engages all major muscle groups. It stretches and strengthens the muscles, enhancing flexibility and endurance.
  2. Improves Cardiovascular Health
    Performing Surya Namaskar at a brisk pace can provide an excellent cardiovascular workout, improving heart health and increasing blood circulation.
  3. Aids in Weight Loss
    The dynamic nature of Surya Namaskar helps in burning calories and reducing body fat. Regular practice can lead to significant weight loss over time.
  4. Enhances Flexibility
    Each pose in Surya Namaskar stretches various muscles, ligaments, and joints, leading to increased flexibility and a greater range of motion.
  5. Boosts Digestive Health
    The forward bends and backward stretches in Surya Namaskar massage the internal organs, improving digestion and aiding in the elimination of toxins.
  6. Strengthens the Immune System
    The improved blood circulation and enhanced lymphatic flow from regular practice help in boosting the immune system, making the body more resilient to infections.
  7. Reduces Stress and Anxiety
    The mindful breathing and meditative aspect of Surya Namaskar help in reducing stress and anxiety. It promotes mental clarity and emotional stability.
  8. Improves Posture and Balance
    The different poses in Surya Namaskar require balance and coordination, which helps in improving overall posture and body alignment.
  9. Enhances Skin Health
    The increased blood flow and sweating during the practice help in detoxifying the skin, leading to a clearer and healthier complexion.
  10. Promotes Respiratory Health
    The deep and rhythmic breathing involved in Surya Namaskar enhances lung capacity and respiratory efficiency.
  11. Balances Hormonal Function
    The sequence of poses stimulates the endocrine glands, including the thyroid, which can help in balancing hormones and improving overall health.
  12. Increases Energy Levels
    The practice of Surya Namaskar energizes the body and mind, making it an excellent way to start the day with vitality and enthusiasm.

Tips for Practicing Surya Namaskar

  1. Warm-Up Properly
    Although Surya Namaskar itself is a warm-up routine, it’s important to prepare your body with some gentle stretches to prevent injuries.
  2. Focus on Breath Control
    Synchronize your movements with your breath. Inhale and exhale deeply and mindfully with each pose.
  3. Start Slowly
    If you are new to Surya Namaskar, start with a few cycles and gradually increase the number as your stamina and strength improve.
  4. Maintain Proper Form
    Pay attention to your alignment in each pose to avoid strain and maximize the benefits. It might be helpful to practice in front of a mirror or with a teacher initially.
  5. Listen to Your Body
    Don’t push yourself too hard. Practice at your own pace and modify poses if needed. Rest if you feel any discomfort or pain.
  6. Practice Consistently
    Regular practice is key to reaping the benefits of Surya Namaskar. Aim to practice daily or at least several times a week.
  7. Combine with Other Yoga Practices
    Complement Surya Namaskar with other yoga poses, pranayama (breathing exercises), and meditation for a well-rounded yoga practice.
  8. Hydrate and Nourish
    Drink plenty of water and maintain a balanced diet to support your yoga practice and overall health.
  9. Create a Calm Environment
    Practice in a quiet, clean, and well-ventilated space to enhance your focus and relaxation.
  10. Set Intentions
    Begin your practice with a positive intention or dedication. This can enhance the mental and spiritual benefits of Surya Namaskar.


Surya Namaskar is a powerful yoga practice that offers a multitude of benefits for the body and mind. By incorporating this sequence into your daily routine, you can improve your physical fitness, enhance your mental well-being, and cultivate a sense of inner peace and balance. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced practitioner, Surya Namaskar can be adapted to suit your needs and goals. Remember to practice mindfully, listen to your body, and enjoy the journey towards better health and vitality.

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