Complete Class 12 Political Science Syllabus 2024-25

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Complete Class 12 Political Science Syllabus 2024-25

Political science is a branch of social science that deals with the social structures and practices of state or central governance. It also encompasses the philosophical, historical, constitutional, and legal foundations of the political system at both the national level and international levels.

The recently released CBSE’s Class 12 Political Science Syllabus 2024-25 focuses on contemporary world politics and Politics in India since Independence. From of disintegration of the Soviet Union to the new entities in World Politics CBSE has covered in depth about world politics and globilisation. 

In the Indian context, the CBSE has included the political aspects of India since independence. Rise of INC, Surat Split, declaration of Emergency in 1975 by Indira Gandhi govt. etc.   

To cover the entire political science syllabus CBSE has recommended two NCERT Books for Class 12

  1. PART A- Contemporary World Politics
  2. PART B- Politics in India Since Independence

               CBSE Class 12  Political Science Syllabus 2024-25

APART A- Contemporary World Politics
The End of Bipolarity06
Contemporary Centers of Power06
Contemporary South Asia06
International Organizations06
Security in the Contemporary World06
Environment and Natural Resources06
BPART B- Politics in India Since Independence
Challenges of Nation-Building06
Era of One-Party Dominance04
Politics of Planned Development02
India’s External Relations06
Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System04
The Crisis of Democratic Order04
Regional Aspirations06
Recent Developments in Indian Politics08
Practical File (12) + Viva Voce (08)20

CBSE Political Science Class 12 Syllabus: Chapter-wise Important Topics

The CBSE Political Science class 12 syllabus aims to equip students with a thorough understanding of political concepts, theories, and developments. It is broken into two sections: Part A focuses on contemporary world politics and Part B covers politics in India since independence. Here is the complete  Class 12 Political Science syllabus released by CBSE.

PART A- Contemporary World Politics

Part A contains contemporary World Politics and has a total of 7 chapters. 

Chapter 1: The End of Bipolarity

Topics to be focused:

a) The Soviet System

b) Gorbachev and the disintegration

c) Causes and Consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union

d) Shock Therapy and its Consequences

e) New entities in world politics 

  • Russia 
  • Balkan States 
  • Central Asian States

f) India’s relations with Russia and other post-communist countries

Chapter 2: Contemporary Centers of Power

Topics to be focused:

a) European Union

b) Association of Southeast Asian Nations

c) Rise of China as an economic power

d) Japan and South Korea as emerging powers

Chapter 3: Contemporary South Asia

Topics to be focused:

a) Military and Democracy in Pakistan and Bangladesh

b) Monarchy and Democracy in Nepal

c) Ethnic Conflict and Democracy in Sri Lanka

d) India-Pakistan Conflicts

e) India and its Neighbours

f) Peace and Cooperation

Chapter 4: International Organizations

Topics to be focused:

a) Meaning and importance of International Organisations

b) Evolution of the UN

c) Structure and function of International Organisations

d) Principal Organs of UN

e) Reform of the UN after the Cold War

f) Reform of Structures, Processes, and Jurisdiction of the UN

g) India and the UN Reforms

h) Key Agencies: IMF, World Bank, WTO, ILO, IAEA.

i) NGO: Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch.

j) Implications and Future of International Organizations

Chapter 5: Security in the Contemporary World

Topics to be focused on:

a) Meaning and Type of Security.

b) Traditional concept of security

c) Non-tradition notions of Security.

d) New Sources of Threats

e) Cooperative Security

f) India’s Security strategy

Chapter 6: Environment and Natural Resources

Topics to be focused on:

a) Environmental Concerns

b) Global Commons

c) Common but differentiated Responsibilities

d) India’s Stand on Environmental Issues

e) Environmental Movements

f) Resource Geopolitics

g) Rights of Indigenous peoples  

Chapter 7: Globalisation

Topics to be focused

a) Concept of globalisation

b) Causes and Consequences of globalisation

c) India and globalization

d) Resistance to globalization

e) India and resistance to globalisation

PART B- Politics in India Since Independence

Part B contains Politics in India Since Independence and has a total of 8 chapters. 

Chapter 1: Challenges of Nation-Building

Topics to be focused:

a) Challenges for the new Nation

  • Three Challenges

b) Partition: Displacement and Rehabilitation

  • Consequences of Partition

c) Integration of Princely States

  • The problem Government’s approach
  • Hyderabad
  • Manipur

d) Reorganisation of States.

Chapter 2: Era of One-Party Dominance

a) Challenge of building democracy

b) Congress dominance in the first three general elections.

  • Nature of Congress dominance
  • Congress as a social and ideological coalition.
  • Tolerance and management of Factions

c) Emergence of opposition parties.

Chapter 3: Politics of Planned Development

Topics to be focussed:

a) Political contestation

  • Ideas of Development
  • Planning
  • Planning Commission

b) The Early Initiatives

  • The First Five-Year Plan.
  • Rapid Industrialisation

Chapter 4: India’s External Relations

a) International Context

b) The Policy of NonAlignment.

  • Nehru’s role
  • Distance from two camps.
  • Afro Asian Unity

c) Peace and conflict with China

  • The Chinese Invasion1962
  • War and Peace with Pakistan
  • Bangladesh War 1971

d) India’s Nuclear Policy

Chapter 5: Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System

a) Challenge of Political Succession

  • From Nehru to Shastri
  • From Shastri to Indira Gandhi

b) Fourth General Election 1967

  • Context of the Election.
  • Non Congressism
  • Electoral Verdict
  • Coalitions
  • Defections

c) Split in the Congress

  • Indira vs the Syndicate
  • Presidential Election 1969

d) The 1971 Election and Restoration of Congress

  • The outcome and after Restoration?

Chapter 6: The Crisis of Democratic Order

(a) Background to Emergency.

  • Economic Context
  • Gujarat and Bihar Movements
  • Conflict with Judiciary

b) Declaration of Emergency

  • Crisis and Response
  • Consequences

c) Lessons of the Emergency.

d) Politics after the Emergency.

  • Lok Sabha Elections 1977
  • Janata Government
  • Legacy

Chapter 7: Regional Aspirations

a) Region and the Nation 

  • Indian Approach
  • Areas of Tension
  • Jammu and Kashmir
  • Roots of the Problem
  • External and Internal disputes
  • Politics since 1948
  • Insurgency and After
  • 2022 and Beyond

b) Punjab

  • Political Context
  • Cycle of Violence
  • Road to Peace

c) The Northeast

  • Demand for autonomy
  • Secessionist Movements
  • Movements against outsiders
  • Assam and National Integration

Chapter 8: Recent Developments in Indian Politics

a) Context of 1990s

b) Era of Coalition

  • Alliance Politics

c) Political rise of the Backward Classes

  • Mandal Implemented
  • Political Fallouts

d) Communalism, Secularism, and Democracy.

  • Ayodhya Dispute
  • Demolition and after

e) Emergence of New Consensus

f) Lok Sabha Elections 2004

g) Growing Consensus

Class 12 Political Science Project Work: Suggested Topics

1. NAM- 1961 to present times.

2. Division of Germany with a special focus on the construction and dismantling of the Berlin Wall.

3. CIS-Central Asian Republics

4. Disintegration of USSR with special focus on Gorbachev.

5. Arab Spring

6. Cover the negative as well as positive aspects of the relationship between India and the following countries.

Focus on any one of the following (current updates should be highlighted):

a) Relationship between India and Russia

b) Relationship between India and China

c) Relationship between India and Pakistan

d) Relationship between India and Bangladesh


8. European Union and BREXIT



11. India’s Nuclear Policy

12. United Nations with a focus on India’s candidature in the Security Council.

13. UN Agencies – UNICEF, UNESCO, WHO

14. Pandemics: Covid-19- Its global impact (focus on worldwide cooperation and preparedness along with controversies (please collect newspaper clippings for the same)

15. Partition of India-Theory behind it and its legacy

16. Comparison between NITI AAYOG and Planning Commission and their contribution in India’s Development.

17. Election 2019- Rise of BJP and Downfall of Congress (1989-2019).

18. Emergency – A blot on Indian Democracy

19. NDA III and NDA IV – Social and Economic welfare programs.

Prescribed Books To Cover Syllabus of Political Science Class 12

CBSE has recommended the following books to cover the Class 12 Political Science Syllabus 2024-25

1. Contemporary World Politics, Class XII, Published by NCERT

2. Politics in India since Independence, Class XII, Published by NCERT

The political science syllabus for class 12 is very interesting. A thorough analysis of the syllabus and a pre-planned study schedule will help you score very good marks in the class 12 board exam. More Info ….

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